I am an Assistant Professor of Economics at UCLA. I am also a research affiliate of the Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Global Working Group (HCEO). My research interests are policy evaluation, causality and applied econometrics. A constant theme in my research is the identification, estimation and inference of causal effects. More recently, I have studied how to apply revealed preference analysis to enhance causal inference on social experiments. I have studied a range of social experiments including  the Perry Pre-school Intervention, High/Scope Comparison Study, Abecedarian Project, Nurse-Family Partnership,  Primeira Infancia Melhor (in Brazil), Oportunidades (Mexico), Moving to Opportunity (MTO).


​​Working Papers

Ordered, Unordered and Minimal Monotonicity Criteria

(with Manu Navjeeva,  last update on 03/10/2022)

An Analysis of the Memphis Nurse-Family Partnership Program

(with James Heckman, Margaret Holland, Kevin Makino, David Olds, Maria Rosales-Rueda,  last update on 07/11/2017)


​​​Effect of the Jamaica Early Childhood Stimulation Intervention early childhood stimulation on schooling and labor market outcomes at age 31

(with Susan Chang-Lopez, Sally Grantham-McGregor, Paul Gertler, James Heckman, Amika Wright, Christel Vermeersch, and Susan Walker, last update on 08/30/2021)


Submitted and R&R  Papers

Causality and Econometrics


(with James Heckman,  last update on 01/10/2022)


Beyond Intention to Treat: Using the Incentives in Moving to Opportunity to Identify Neighborhood Effects

(last update on 01/26/2021)

[Paper] [Appendix]     

Inference with Imperfect Randomization: The Case of the Perry Preschool Program

​(with James Heckman and Azeem Shaik), 2020



Published and Forthcoming Papers

The Econometric Model for Causal Policy Analysis

(with James Heckman) Forthcoming at Annual Reviews of Economics, 2022.


Causal Inference of Social Experiments using Orthogonal Designs

​(with James Heckman), Forthcoming at Journal of Quantitative Economics, 2022.


The Effect of Trade on Workers and Voters

​(with Christian Dippel, Robert Gold, and Stephan Heblich), The Economic Journal, 2021. 


Cognitive, psychosocial, and behaviour gains at age 31 years from the Jamaica early childhood stimulation trial

(Susan Walker, Susan Chang, Amika Wright, James Heckman, and Sally Grantham-McGregor)

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2021.


Unordered Monotonicity

​(with James Heckman), Econometrica, 2018, vol. 86(1), pages 1-35.   

[Paper]  [Appendix]

The Effects of Two Influential Early Childhood Interventions on Health and Healthy Behaviour 
(with  Gabriella Conti and James Heckman), The Economic Journal, 2016, Vol. 126, pp. 28-65.

​​​[Paper] [Appendix]


Causal Analysis After Haavelmo
(with James Heckman), Econometric Theory, 2015, Vol. 31, pp 115-151.



Econometric Mediation Analyses: Identifying the Sources of Treatment Effects from Experimentally Estimated Production Technologies with Unmeasured and Mismeasured Inputs

​(with James Heckman), Econometric Reviews, 2015, Vol. 34, pp 6-31.


Labor Market Returns to Early Childhood Stimulation:

A 20-year Follow-up to an Experimental Intervention in Jamaica
(with Paul Gertler, James Heckman, Arianna Zanolini, Christel Vermeersch, Susan Walker, Susan Chang, and Sally Grantham-McGregor), Science, 2014, Vol. 344, n. 6187.

​​​[Paper]  [Appendix]

Early Childhood Investments Substantially Boost Adult Health 
(with Frances A. Campbell, Gabriella Conti, James J. Heckman, Seong Moon, and Elizabeth P. Pungello), Science 2014, Vol. 343, n. 6178, pp. 1478-1485.

​​​[Paper] [Appendix]

Understanding the Mechanisms Through Which an Influential Early Childhood Program Boosted Adult Outcomes
(with James Heckman and Peter Savelyev), American Economic Review, 2013, Vol. 103, n. 6, pp.  2052-2086.

​​[Paper]   [Appendix]

The Rate of Return to the HighScope Perry Preschool Program 
(with James J. Heckman, Seong Moon, Peter Savelyev and Adam Yavitz), Journal of Public Economics, 2010, Vol. 94, n. 1, pp. 114-128.

[Paper]   [Appendix]

Analyzing Social Experiments as Implemented: A Reexamination of the Evidence from the HighScope Perry Preschool Program
(with James Heckman, Seong Moon, Peter Savelyev, and Adam Yavitz), Quantitative Economics, 2010, Vol. 1, n. 1, pp. 1-46.

[Paper]   [Appendix]

Evaluation of Small-Sample Compromised Randomization: Long-Term Effects of Early Childhood Intervention on Health and on Addictive Behavior
Brazilian Review of Econometrics, 2010, Vol. 30 n. 2, pp. 451-485.


Economic Returns to Early Education for Disadvantaged Children: Lessons from the High-Scope Perry Preschool Program (with James J. Heckman, Seong Moon, Peter Savelyev and Adam Yavitz) Journal of Finance and Business, 2010, Vol. 3, pp. 39-51.

Debt composition and exchange rate balance sheet effect in Brazil: a firm level analysis
(with Marco Bonomo and Betina Martins), Emerging Markets Review, 2003, Vol. 4, n. 4, pp. 368-396.



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